1 It is essential to communicate regularly but briefly with the sales force in the field. Regular but brief communication with the sales force in the feld is essential.
2 Local authorities preserved a wide area of landfrom being developed, and this allowed them to create a park. The preservation of a wide area of land from development allowed local authorities to create a park.
3 The presenter questioned whether some of theresearch into prime numbers was relevant. The relevance of some of the research into prime numbers was questioned by the presenter.
4 Orton supports Foster, who predicts sloweconomic growth led by the service sector.Orton supports Foster in his prediction of slow economic growth led by the service sector.
5 The political situation must be stable before it is possible for poverty in this part of Africa to be eliminated. The stability of the political situation is a pre-condition for the elimination of poverty in this part of Africa.
1 There is a persuasive argument for adopting any traffic scheme that reduces town centre congestion.
2 It should be recognized that raising interest rates may not solve the inflationary pressure.
3 It may be preferable for the newspaper industry to regulate itself.
4 There was a difference of opinion within the team about the design of the logo.
5 There may be a case for rewarding drivers who regularly take colleagues to work.
6 It seems to be difficult for larger travel companies to gain the positive feedbackthat their smaller competitors enjoy.
1 We know that many scientific discoveries are made by a process of trial and error.
2 As a researcher, one is aware that another academic may be investigatingexactly the same area.
3 To sum up, I would argue that the UK would benefit from encouraging a growth inthe culture of philanthropy.
4 We have decided that each member of our team will present a separate model of arts funding.
5 I understand your fears, but I also think you are unlikely to fnd a new energy sourcewith as much potential. 6 I agree that there are valid criticisms of this scheme, but, as my last slideshows, the alternatives are all more expensive.
1 Medical reports suggested that the trapped miners’ physical condition deteriorated rapidlyafter the first week.
2 The suspect refused to reveal his occupation to thepolice.
3 The enquiry concluded that the drugs administered to the patients by hospital staff were inappropriate.
4 The construction company claimed it had informed employees that the wearing of goggles was advisable
5 There were at least two occasions when secrettalks were held between the British and Irish Governments.
6 The pace of change within the industry has accelerated over the past decade.
7 The inquiry panel catalogued the number of accidents that had occurred on that part of themotorway.
8 The opposition argued that the government’s cuts to housing benefit were unacceptable .
1 There is little hope that the opera company will find a sponsor for its innovative programme.
2 Three of the seven species identified by the team in 1972 have virtually disappeared.
3 Michaels describes an ideal business environment in which confidence strengthens the economy and vice versa.
4 A new member entering an established group of friends can upset the status quo.
5 Brian Talbot is primarily an expert in hydraulics.
6 Nutritionists generally agree that there are no fast-track solutions to sustainableweight loss.
The experiment set out to examine the optimum growing conditions of one particular strain of bacteria, with regard to two separate variable , namely the temperature and the colour of light that the samples were exposed to . The team discovered that there was a strong correlation between high bacterial growth rates and a temperature in the range of 35 to 36 degrees. The samples kept a degree below this minimum or above this maximum produced about 20% less growth, and those held below 30 degrees produced no growth at all. Experimentation with a second variable showed less influence on the growth rates. No matter what the colour of light that the bacteria were exposed to,the same growth resulted.
b a b c c a c b
1 It has been estimated that 25% of homeless adults suffer from some form of mental illness. 2 The practice of short selling contributed to the collapse of Lehman Brothers. 3 Drought appears to be the major problem in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. 4 Wasps with a greater number of black spots on their heads tend to be more aggressive, according to research. 5 The report indeicates that in some parts of the country bipolar disorder is being overdiagnosed. 6 It looks as if smaller electronics companies are doing better than their larger rivals. (looks)
1 The US economy grew slightly faster in the first quarter than was expected. 2 Mature students do not necessarily manage their deadlines better than younger colleagues. 3 The transition from prison life to ordinary society is quite a difficult one. 4 Although it works faster than other treatments, the new drug is _ expensive to produce. 5 Smaller shops _ suffer a decline in trade when a supermarket opens nearby. 6 Physical exercise _ reduces the symptoms of mild depression. 7 Third-year undergraduate courses _ cover less ground in greater depth than the first two years. 8 Groundnut oil is similar in character but _ rather more expensive than grapeseed oil. 9 There are _ 100 billion neurons in the human brain. 10 In pollution control, it is a _ impossible to establish a firm link between a specific event, such as a leak of chemicals, and harm to the local population.
1 The latest research indicate that the picture was painted by Michelangelo. 2 Most people that it is normally wrong to lie. 3 It is possible that economic sanctions rarely achieve their primary purpose. 4 Statistics have that the life expectancy gap between men and women is shortening in Canada. 5 It has suggested that schizophrenia should be regarded as a collection of disorders. 6 It seem that the inspectors’ advice on fire safety was ignored by several of the company’s senior managers.
1 These new studies into brain function help us to understand cases of slow development in some children. (can) 2 High-speed rail travel in Europe will take more market share from short-haul flights. (possible) 3 Scientists have found a way of changing the immune system to prevent food allergies. (may) 4 Medical research will not determine the cause of autism. (unlikely) 5 There is likely to be a worldwide shortage of rare earth metals in the near future. (probably) 6 Sparks from electric power lines caused some of the forest fires in the region. (likely) 7 Space debris will damage key communications satellites. (could) 8 The amount of cybercrime in the USA and Europe will decrease as security software improves. (should) 9 Recent government campaigns did not have any long-lasting impact on levels of adult obesity. (unlikely) 10 The latest fall in unemployment will improve consumer confidence in the economy. (might) 11 A horse that is deprived of sensory stimulation will stop eating. (possibly) 12 Changes in the chemical composition of the material occurred as a result of careless handling in the laboratory. (could)
1 The new antibiotic has principle better long-term prospects. 2 The situation in the region has improved the extent that tourists are now beginning to return. 3 The new CEO Jackie Dell has one sense little left to prove after twenty years of top-flight management. 4 There are balance several advantages to leasing rather than owning a car. 5 The advertising campaign worked the sense that people became aware of the risks of passive smoking. 6 The new law will some extent reduce the opportunities for tax evasion.
1She loves to pose for photographs in front of her fabulous house.
The events pose a threat to stability in the region.
2The photograph was useless. lt was blurred and out of focus
Child poverty should be the focus of our attention in the coming years.
3 l went online and confirm my flight reservation.
The data confirmed the hypothesis that animal-lovers enjoy better health.
4The power plant generates electricity for the whole region.
This issue alway generates a great deal of debate among academics.
5 The murderer was identified from fingerprints discovered at the scene.
ln this theory of history, progress is closely identified with technology.
6 l saw her turn to her husband and whisper something in his ear.
Let us now turn to the subject of social networking.
7 He always underline every new word when he’s reading.
The study underlined the fact that very little research exists.
8 The liquid became solid as the temperature was lowered.
The study lacks solid evidence and its conclusions are questionable.
1What democracy is really like - The nature of Democracy
2 Why dreams are important - The significance of Dreams
3 What do we see in glaciated landscapes?- The feature of Glaciated Landscapes
4 How to evaluate language skills - The assessment of Language Skills
5 Ways in which human behaviour repeats itself - Patterns of Human Behaviour
6 How to recognise different species of bees -The identification of Bees
7 Thinking about taxation from different angle - Persperctives on Modern Taxation
8 How to make sure that a business is successful - The principles of Successful Business
1 As can be seen from Table ll, participation figures have been steadily falling since 1970.
2 Different authors have accounted for the President’s actions in different ways.
3 Mendel attempted to devise a system for classifying the many different types of pea plant that he grew.
4 lt is often most effective to present your data in a chart or table.
5 The data we have collected show that there has been a downward trend with regard tojob satisfaction over the last 50 years.
6 The aim of the research is to develop a new software application which will help aviation engineers design more sophisticated aircraft. 7 The archaeologists should be able to use carbon dating techniques to establish exactly how old the bones are. 8 Charles Darwin attempted to explain the existence of different species in terms of evolution.
1 The plant is difficult to grow and needs very specific conditions to survive. 2 His tutor was critical of his work for not being rigorous enough. 3 In the past the northern tribes looked on the tribes of the south as potential enemies. 4 We chose a qualitative approach to our research and interviewed individuals personally. 5 A complex set of circumstances led to a civil war in 1897. 6 The rough estimates that we made turned out to be surprisingly accurate.
1 There were exacly 350 people living in the village in 1958.
2 Floods happen infrequently in this part of the country.
3 We investigated the problem and eventually found some small errors in the calculations.
4 The temperature was roughly half a degree lower than the average.
5 Singh (1998) im plicitly criticises existing theories of economic growth.
6 Soil erosion is generally caused by water or wind.
7 The new results were precisely the same as the previous ones.
8 The disease is indirectly linked to environmental factors.
1 ln a surprising number of cases, there was no reaction at all to the drug.(SURPRISE)
2 The analysis demanded an excessive amount of computer time.(EXCEED)
3 Considerable numbers of birds inhabit the lake during the winter.(CONSIDER)
4 The course requires a reasonable amount of prior knowledge.(REASON)
5 The survey took a substantial amount of research time and costs were high.(SUBSTANCE)
6 The two dams can hold in excess of two cubic kilometres of water. (EXCEED)
7 ln total, 12 areas of the Southern Indian Ocean are now closed to deep-sea fishing.(TOTALITY) 8 Only a handful of students chose the course, so it was cancelled.(HAND) 9 No fewer than 2,000 new computer viruses are created every year.(FEW) 10 ln a significant number of cases, surface damage was noticed. (SIGNIFY)
1 when you are doing research, you must keep good records of your references as it can bedifficult to locate sources later.
2 This medical condition is most likely to occar in fair-skinned people.
3 Engine speed can be measured in revolutions per minute.
4 Hope, the theme of the anthology, is general enough to accommodate a variety of approaches.
5 The structure of society in Ancient Rome has parallels with that of the modern USA.
6 The experiment was designed to discover whether gold contracted or expanded under different conditions.
1 The results of the investigation have shone a light on the pressures of the global economy on farmers in developing countries.
2 Until recently, scientists have remained in the dark as to the causes of the disease, but a recent breakthrough promises to shed new light on the problem.
3 Our whole notion of time and space has change in the light recent developments in physics.
4 Professor Delrio gave a very illuminating talk on one of Shakespeare’s later plays .
5 These communities have lived for decades in the shadow of poverty and social deprivation
6 The team carried out a series of experiments in an attempt to illuminate the mysterious processes at work in the organism.
7 The collapse of the bridge in 1998 highlighted the need for a more rigorous analysis of the effects of constant traffic movements.
8 The professor found some glaring errors in one student’s calculations.
|in sum, to sum up, fundamentally
|in short, briefly, basically
|almost, more or less
|不可数，使用pieces of research
|be made up of
|set out (to do some thing)
|go/look back over
|go on to
|write sth. up
|a great deal of
|for the most part
|all of …
|none of …
|one of …
small, considerable, substantial, significant, huge, enormous, vast, total, surprisin, excessive, fair, reasonable
|in excess of
|fewer and fewer/less and less
|more and more
|more or less
|no fewer than
|shine a light on
|in the light of
|remain in the dark
|in the shadow of
|the onslaught of
|the battle against
|scored a victory
|maintain a united front