1 It is essential to communicate regularly but briefly with the sales force in the field. Regular but brief communication with the sales force in the feld is essential.

2 Local authorities preserved a wide area of landfrom being developed, and this allowed them to create a park. The preservation of a wide area of land from development allowed local authorities to create a park.

3 The presenter questioned whether some of theresearch into prime numbers was relevant. The relevance of some of the research into prime numbers was questioned by the presenter.

4 Orton supports Foster, who predicts sloweconomic growth led by the service sector.Orton supports Foster in his prediction of slow economic growth led by the service sector.

5 The political situation must be stable before it is possible for poverty in this part of Africa to be eliminated. The stability of the political situation is a pre-condition for the elimination of poverty in this part of Africa.


1 There is a persuasive argument for adopting any traffic scheme that reduces town centre congestion.

2 It should be recognized that raising interest rates may not solve the inflationary pressure.

3 It may be preferable for the newspaper industry to regulate itself.

4 There was a difference of opinion within the team about the design of the logo.

5 There may be a case for rewarding drivers who regularly take colleagues to work.

6 It seems to be difficult for larger travel companies to gain the positive feedbackthat their smaller competitors enjoy.


1 We know that many scientific discoveries are made by a process of trial and error.

2 As a researcher, one is aware that another academic may be investigatingexactly the same area.

3 To sum up, I would argue that the UK would benefit from encouraging a growth inthe culture of philanthropy.

4 We have decided that each member of our team will present a separate model of arts funding.

5 I understand your fears, but I also think you are unlikely to fnd a new energy sourcewith as much potential. 6 I agree that there are valid criticisms of this scheme, but, as my last slideshows, the alternatives are all more expensive.


1 Medical reports suggested that the trapped miners’ physical condition deteriorated rapidlyafter the first week.

2 The suspect refused to reveal his occupation to thepolice.

3 The enquiry concluded that the drugs administered to the patients by hospital staff were inappropriate.

4 The construction company claimed it had informed employees that the wearing of goggles was advisable

5 There were at least two occasions when secrettalks were held between the British and Irish Governments.

6 The pace of change within the industry has accelerated over the past decade.

7 The inquiry panel catalogued the number of accidents that had occurred on that part of themotorway.

8 The opposition argued that the government’s cuts to housing benefit were unacceptable .


1 There is little hope that the opera company will find a sponsor for its innovative programme.

2 Three of the seven species identified by the team in 1972 have virtually disappeared.

3 Michaels describes an ideal business environment in which confidence strengthens the economy and vice versa.

4 A new member entering an established group of friends can upset the status quo.

5 Brian Talbot is primarily an expert in hydraulics.

6 Nutritionists generally agree that there are no fast-track solutions to sustainableweight loss.

1 final

The experiment set out to examine the optimum growing conditions of one particular strain of bacteria, with regard to two separate variable , namely the temperature and the colour of light that the samples were exposed to . The team discovered that there was a strong correlation between high bacterial growth rates and a temperature in the range of 35 to 36 degrees. The samples kept a degree below this minimum or above this maximum produced about 20% less growth, and those held below 30 degrees produced no growth at all. Experimentation with a second variable showed less influence on the growth rates. No matter what the colour of light that the bacteria were exposed to,the same growth resulted.


b a b c c a c b


1 It has been estimated that 25% of homeless adults suffer from some form of mental illness. 2 The practice of short selling contributed to the collapse of Lehman Brothers. 3 Drought appears to be the major problem in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. 4 Wasps with a greater number of black spots on their heads tend to be more aggressive, according to research. 5 The report indeicates that in some parts of the country bipolar disorder is being overdiagnosed. 6 It looks as if smaller electronics companies are doing better than their larger rivals. (looks)


1 The US economy grew slightly faster in the first quarter than was expected. 2 Mature students do not necessarily manage their deadlines better than younger colleagues. 3 The transition from prison life to ordinary society is quite a difficult one. 4 Although it works faster than other treatments, the new drug is _ expensive to produce. 5 Smaller shops _ suffer a decline in trade when a supermarket opens nearby. 6 Physical exercise _ reduces the symptoms of mild depression. 7 Third-year undergraduate courses _ cover less ground in greater depth than the first two years. 8 Groundnut oil is similar in character but _ rather more expensive than grapeseed oil. 9 There are _ 100 billion neurons in the human brain. 10 In pollution control, it is a _ impossible to establish a firm link between a specific event, such as a leak of chemicals, and harm to the local population.


1 The latest research indicate that the picture was painted by Michelangelo. 2 Most people that it is normally wrong to lie. 3 It is possible that economic sanctions rarely achieve their primary purpose. 4 Statistics have that the life expectancy gap between men and women is shortening in Canada. 5 It has suggested that schizophrenia should be regarded as a collection of disorders. 6 It seem that the inspectors’ advice on fire safety was ignored by several of the company’s senior managers.


1 These new studies into brain function help us to understand cases of slow development in some children. (can) 2 High-speed rail travel in Europe will take more market share from short-haul flights. (possible) 3 Scientists have found a way of changing the immune system to prevent food allergies. (may) 4 Medical research will not determine the cause of autism. (unlikely) 5 There is likely to be a worldwide shortage of rare earth metals in the near future. (probably) 6 Sparks from electric power lines caused some of the forest fires in the region. (likely) 7 Space debris will damage key communications satellites. (could) 8 The amount of cybercrime in the USA and Europe will decrease as security software improves. (should) 9 Recent government campaigns did not have any long-lasting impact on levels of adult obesity. (unlikely) 10 The latest fall in unemployment will improve consumer confidence in the economy. (might) 11 A horse that is deprived of sensory stimulation will stop eating. (possibly) 12 Changes in the chemical composition of the material occurred as a result of careless handling in the laboratory. (could)


1 The new antibiotic has principle better long-term prospects. 2 The situation in the region has improved the extent that tourists are now beginning to return. 3 The new CEO Jackie Dell has one sense little left to prove after twenty years of top-flight management. 4 There are balance several advantages to leasing rather than owning a car. 5 The advertising campaign worked the sense that people became aware of the risks of passive smoking. 6 The new law will some extent reduce the opportunities for tax evasion.


1She loves to pose for photographs in front of her fabulous house.

The events pose a threat to stability in the region.

2The photograph was useless. lt was blurred and out of focus

Child poverty should be the focus of our attention in the coming years.

3 l went online and confirm my flight reservation.

The data confirmed the hypothesis that animal-lovers enjoy better health.

4The power plant generates electricity for the whole region.

This issue alway generates a great deal of debate among academics.

5 The murderer was identified from fingerprints discovered at the scene.

ln this theory of history, progress is closely identified with technology.

6 l saw her turn to her husband and whisper something in his ear.

Let us now turn to the subject of social networking.

7 He always underline every new word when he’s reading.

The study underlined the fact that very little research exists.

8 The liquid became solid as the temperature was lowered.

The study lacks solid evidence and its conclusions are questionable.


1What democracy is really like - The nature of Democracy

2 Why dreams are important - The significance of Dreams

3 What do we see in glaciated landscapes?- The feature of Glaciated Landscapes

4 How to evaluate language skills - The assessment of Language Skills

5 Ways in which human behaviour repeats itself - Patterns of Human Behaviour

6 How to recognise different species of bees -The identification of Bees

7 Thinking about taxation from different angle - Persperctives on Modern Taxation

8 How to make sure that a business is successful - The principles of Successful Business


1 As can be seen from Table ll, participation figures have been steadily falling since 1970.

2 Different authors have accounted for the President’s actions in different ways.

3 Mendel attempted to devise a system for classifying the many different types of pea plant that he grew.

4 lt is often most effective to present your data in a chart or table.

5 The data we have collected show that there has been a downward trend with regard tojob satisfaction over the last 50 years.

6 The aim of the research is to develop a new software application which will help aviation engineers design more sophisticated aircraft. 7 The archaeologists should be able to use carbon dating techniques to establish exactly how old the bones are. 8 Charles Darwin attempted to explain the existence of different species in terms of evolution.


1 The plant is difficult to grow and needs very specific conditions to survive. 2 His tutor was critical of his work for not being rigorous enough. 3 In the past the northern tribes looked on the tribes of the south as potential enemies. 4 We chose a qualitative approach to our research and interviewed individuals personally. 5 A complex set of circumstances led to a civil war in 1897. 6 The rough estimates that we made turned out to be surprisingly accurate.


1 There were exacly 350 people living in the village in 1958.

2 Floods happen infrequently in this part of the country.

3 We investigated the problem and eventually found some small errors in the calculations.

4 The temperature was roughly half a degree lower than the average.

5 Singh (1998) im plicitly criticises existing theories of economic growth.

6 Soil erosion is generally caused by water or wind.

7 The new results were precisely the same as the previous ones.

8 The disease is indirectly linked to environmental factors.

6, x


1 ln a surprising number of cases, there was no reaction at all to the drug.(SURPRISE)

2 The analysis demanded an excessive amount of computer time.(EXCEED)

3 Considerable numbers of birds inhabit the lake during the winter.(CONSIDER)

4 The course requires a reasonable amount of prior knowledge.(REASON)

5 The survey took a substantial amount of research time and costs were high.(SUBSTANCE)

6 The two dams can hold in excess of two cubic kilometres of water. (EXCEED)

7 ln total, 12 areas of the Southern Indian Ocean are now closed to deep-sea fishing.(TOTALITY) 8 Only a handful of students chose the course, so it was cancelled.(HAND) 9 No fewer than 2,000 new computer viruses are created every year.(FEW) 10 ln a significant number of cases, surface damage was noticed. (SIGNIFY)


1 when you are doing research, you must keep good records of your references as it can bedifficult to locate sources later.

2 This medical condition is most likely to occar in fair-skinned people.

3 Engine speed can be measured in revolutions per minute.

4 Hope, the theme of the anthology, is general enough to accommodate a variety of approaches.

5 The structure of society in Ancient Rome has parallels with that of the modern USA.

6 The experiment was designed to discover whether gold contracted or expanded under different conditions.


1 The results of the investigation have shone a light on the pressures of the global economy on farmers in developing countries.

2 Until recently, scientists have remained in the dark as to the causes of the disease, but a recent breakthrough promises to shed new light on the problem.

3 Our whole notion of time and space has change in the light recent developments in physics.

4 Professor Delrio gave a very illuminating talk on one of Shakespeare’s later plays .

5 These communities have lived for decades in the shadow of poverty and social deprivation

6 The team carried out a series of experiments in an attempt to illuminate the mysterious processes at work in the organism.

7 The collapse of the bridge in 1998 highlighted the need for a more rigorous analysis of the effects of constant traffic movements.

8 The professor found some glaring errors in one student’s calculations.


词汇 翻译 备注
discipline 研究领域(纪律)
underline 强调(下划线)
solid 稳固(固态)
in sum, to sum up, fundamentally 更加规范的总之 in short, briefly, basically
solely only
virtually almost, more or less
attempt try
primarily mainly, mostly
characteristic of typical pf



词汇 翻译 备注
subject 学科领域
theme 主题
topics (讨论或写作)主题
issue (主要的主题或问题)议题
theory (学术领域的)理论
model 模型
nature 物品的基础特征
principle 解释事物最基础的规律或者想法


词汇 翻译 备注


词汇 翻译 备注
research 不可数,使用pieces of research


词汇 翻译 备注


词汇 翻译 备注
explain explanation
explore exploration
emphasise emphasis
describe description
affect effect
prove proof


词汇 翻译 备注
relative to
specific to
common to
relevant to
characteristic of
appropriate to
typical of
apparent (discrepancy) 明显的
potential (problem) 潜在的
principal (cause) 首要的
rigorous (methodology) 严谨的


词汇 翻译 备注
abstract concrete
simple complex
quantitative qualitative
accurate inaccurate
significant insignificant
rough precise
simple simplicity
relevant relevance


词汇 翻译 备注
somewhat rather


词汇 翻译 备注
eventually 表示一段时间后,最后应该使用finally


词汇 翻译 备注
essentially 本质上、基本上
explicitly 明确地、清晰地
generally 通常、一般地
implicity 隐含地、含蓄地
specifically 具体地、特别地
broadly 广泛地、宽泛地


词汇 翻译 备注
merely 仅仅的 强调事物非常单一,缺乏复杂性
simply 也可以用来强调事物的明显性和清晰性
solely 表示事物是独立的单一的



词汇 翻译 备注
put forward presemt
carry out conduct
make up constitute
be made up of consist of
point out observe
point up highlight
set out (to do some thing) aim
set out describe
go into discuss
go/look back over revise, review
go through check
词汇 翻译 备注
go on to 继续做
work on 从事处理、研究
set up 建立、设立
worked out 解决、制定出
go against 违反、与…相矛盾
write sth. up 详细记录


词汇 翻译 备注
amount of 不可数
number of 可数
a great deal of 大量 不可数
small scale (研究、实验)规模较小
in total 总计
handful 少数,一少部分(研究)
bulk 大部分
for the most part 大多数时候(与理想结果类似)
all of …
none of …
one of …

small, considerable, substantial, significant, huge, enormous, vast, total, surprisin, excessive, fair, reasonable

词汇 翻译 备注
exceeding 超过(特定值或者标准
in excess of 超过(强调数量
fewer and fewer/less and less 逐渐减少(可数/不可数
more and more 越来越多
more or less 差不多
no fewer than 不少于,至少



词汇 翻译 备注
accommodate 适应(新要求
charge 充电
contract 收缩
occur 存在
reference 参考文献
revolution 轮数
structure 结构


词汇 翻译 备注
shine a light on 启发、揭发
in the light of 鉴于
illuminate 阐明
illuminating 启发性的
glaring 明显的
highlighted 强调
remain in the dark 不了解
in the shadow of 在..的阴影下、被掩盖
词汇 翻译 备注
opposed to 与…相反
united 团结的统一的
the onslaught of 猛烈冲击
the battle against 与…的斗争
bombarded with 被大量涌来
scored a victory 取得胜利
a barrage 密集轰炸
retreating 撤退,后退
maintain a united front 保持团结一致
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